How should the United States respond to Russian violations of the provisions of the 1987 INF Treaty?

The Russian exercise, Zapad, will begin in 48 hours.   We have been notified it will involve 20,000 troops.  The Russians have often given us bad numbers; based on preparations of units, we estimate it may be twice that.  We have assessed for the past ten years that if the Russians were to attempt to take the Baltic States with a conventional attack.

Sam Gardiner, while on active duty, served at NATO headquarters in Mons, in Thailand during the Vietnam War and at the Pentagon. He studied at the Armed Forces Staff College, the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College and at the National War College. He has held a number of faculty positions, at the Naval War College, as a Visiting Professor in the Department of Warfare Studies at the Air War College and as Chairman of the Department of Joint and Combined Operations at the National War College. He was a Visiting scholar at the Swedish National Defense University.

 ...and a developing issue:

The Russians have described the Arctic as a zone of peace.  The Russian President Vladimir talks extensively about not militarizing the Arctic.  He says Russia does not want to start an arm race in the Arctic.  What we are seeing, however, is rhetoric-reality gap.  Russia is rapidly moving military forces into the Arctic.  What are the Russian up to?


There are some capabilities being moved there to protect Russian interests in natural resources.  Some capabilities are being moved there to support the anticipated North Sea Route shipping lanes that open up with ice melting.  The majority of the buildup cannot be explained this way, however.


Russia is constructing an extensive network of facilities; creating bases for air defense fighters; installing sophisticated air defense systems; building a significant radar network; and conducting significant military exercises.  It is a pattern that is clearly directed toward the United States.


The United States, both in its strategy and in public statements, seems to be missing the reality, missing the elephant in the room.